The paint layer to peel off, the canvas torn, the product is suffering from moisture or other extreme conditions. Such damage threatens to further fracture and should be strengthened. To do this, use delicate materials, such as not too strong adhesives. One of the main causes of damage is changes in temperature and humidity. Wood stored in water, the textile is in the earth, but their retrieval and subsequent oxygen shock can lead to irreparable damage. But to place the thing in a special hermetic chamber is not an option since it will be impossible to take out from there: the contact with oxygen is detrimental. There is mechanical damage: breaks, the streaks of water, exposed to extreme conditions, falls, etc.
How to restore what has been lost
To restore the lost items is not always possible, however, in some cases, for example in the restoration of ceramics, the details are able to fill direct analogies.
Restoration uses the method of symmetry, for example, if you lost one of the two handles cases, or inertia when the fragment can be filled, prolonging its outline. There are more complicated ways to compensate. The ceramic statuette is the work of “don Quixote and Sancho Panza” from the Museum “tsarina” received in restoration center named after broken down, without the spear and the horse’s tail. A direct analogy to the lost fragments could not be found: the statue is in many museums, but in all instances also repulsed tail. Through the Museum of the Konakovo faience factory was able to find a master who worked with forms Gurevich, and makes a shape to fill the tail.
Why you need tinted
The detail lost without a trace, do not think ever — restore won’t finish the pattern on the fabric or the eyes on the face of the icon. As a rule, those of the damage, where “author” was not kept replenished conditionally — that is, to the author’s layer and restoration could be distinguished with the naked eye. One of the most common ways such a conditional replenishment is practiced in almost all types of restoration — retouching. This method, described by the Russian restorers in the mid-nineteenth century, allows you to give the work a holistic view while retaining the traces of loss and damage and avoiding counterfeits of the original. The loss is covered by a translucent paint, similar in color with the author. The tinted sections must be different from the copyright layer materials and strength of tone.
On icons and frescoes in the loss of soil visible — light gesso or plaster. These white spots interfere with the integral perception and tinted them with watercolors semitone lighter environmental painting. Toning is intentionally given a mechanical, not a scenic view: a swab is placed under strict rules, limiting its direction, shape, and length. Tint layer copyright is strictly prohibited.
In ceramics complemented by tinted fragments, and textiles — a new basis on which stand the ancient embroidery. Clothes strengthened by specially sewn sheer fabric — gas. Transparent gas is also filled in the gaps: it tinted to the color of the surrounding tissue, and instead of a hole in the fabric appears transparent window through which is seen the wrong side of the subject.
How to choose materials
The restorative material must meet a few basic requirements: stability (the material does not change the structure and properties under influence of temperature or moisture, and not subject), reversibility (if necessary, the material can be removed, and it will not interfere with the re-restoration), durability (material will not change its properties for at least the next 50 years). New materials developed in special laboratories tested for these properties in the cells of aging. Often on the instructions of workshop material tailored to the specific needs of the monument.
Synthetic materials are made especially in the laboratories and enterprises. However, there are a very simple and effective formulation that can be prepared at home. For example, yolk emulsion, forming the paint layer of the murals, made from egg yolk, water, and alcohol.
Sometimes the material used by generations of restorers deserved that ban. So, at some point it became clear that casein glue creates a dense crust, which, when cracking pulls the paint layer and breaks it, so now to strengthen them, painting is prohibited.
How to keep a monument
After completing all work, the restorer continues to observe the monument, give guidance on storage, to prevent any improper interference, to monitor compliance with temperature and humidity (this is one of the main ways to avoid a new natural damage). After the delivery of the work of the restorer is not removed, the responsibility for the monument is still the patient, whose safety depends on the interaction of the restorer with all those involved in the life of the product.