Members of the Dutch group “Style” that included the architect Gerrit, Gerrit Rietveld, was convinced that “universal harmony” must be translated into abstract, shapes painted in the primary colors of the spectrum. Abstract compositions are transferred into a three-dimensional reality of the interior, inspired by Rietveld on the first sketches of furniture. Usually as an example of this experiment remember the “Red-blue chair,” 1917 standing later in the house Trus Schroeder. However, in design history, he is remembered rather as an ingenious study, while indeed a popular target, launched, was the Zigzag chair, designed for Department store Metz & Co. Leather bar several years thinking about how to make the seat functional, and ergonomic, and cheap to manufacture. In 1927, the brothers Bodo and Heinz Rasch came up with their Sitzgeiststuhl — chair schematically reproduces the shape of the human body while sitting. Essentially Zigzag — his-optimized, more minimalistic version. The design is composed of four flat wooden panels (backrest, seat support, the base) connected at an angle using the simplest of grooves and trapezoidal protrusions. Zigzag became the prototype of many similar objects, including the Panton Chair by Verner Panton and Z-SAG Zaha Hadid.
“Historically and practically the main problem in the design of the furniture — coupling between the vertical and horizontal parts. A chair leg — the younger sister of the architectural column.” The author of these words, Finnish architect Alvar Aalto in the 1930-ies a revolution in the technology of furniture production. As a constructive solution to the connection problem, he suggested curvilinear elements: gently curved detail of the contours were moved into a vertical position. To realize such a reception was only possible with metal tubes, as did Mies van der Rohe or Le Corbusier. Aalto worked with wood and with traditional Finnish birch veneer.
At that time, the production of furniture made of bent plywood was a very difficult process. Bend the supporting part of the chair to an angle of 90 degrees was impossible in the bending place definitely had a crack. Together with an employee of the factory Huonekalu-a Rakennustyötehdas Korhonen Otto Aalto has developed a complex system of cuts and internal reinforcement and gluing. Processing technology of plywood, patented Aalto in 1933, was tested on the furniture for the tuberculosis sanatorium in patio and was later used in many other subjects, in particular, stool Stool 60. If this Paimio chair was still on the metal base, then in 1933 there was a version on three curved wooden legs. The production of new, practical, easily stackable stools (as well as all other items designed by Aalto) later took the company Artek, founded by the architect and his friends in 1935.
In 1960 in Copenhagen was opened SAS hotel, designed by the classic Danish modernist Arne Jacobsen. He began his career in the 1920-ies, participated in the famous Exhibition of modern decorative and industrial arts in Paris in 1925. After the war, Jacobsen has had an enormous influence on the development of Scandinavian design, consistently embodying its distinctive qualities — practicality, ergonomics and understated elegance. World fame came to him after the construction of the SAS, for which he not only designed the building but also designed all interior solutions. Furniture, lighting, textiles, Cutlery, every detail has been created based on his sketches. Today, after numerous renovations, the hotel had only one room with original equipment, Dating from the time of opening (No. 606). But the Egg and Swan chairs are still in different colors and upholsteries. Over these objects, the architect worked together with the Hungarian sculptor sander Paesi. In search of the perfect forms, Paesi and Jacobsen have created dozens of test models of chairs. The architect joked that while he was traveling from the capital to the factory and back, he managed to demolish six costumes and change three cars.